- lower: All characters are converted to lowercase.
- upper: All characters are converted to uppercase.
- capitalize: Only the first character of the whole string is capitalized and the rest is lowercase.
- title: The first character of each word in the string is capitalized, the rest is lowercase.
- swapcase: All uppercase characters are converted to lowercase and vice versa.
- strip: All leading and trailing white spaces are removed.
Read more in Python's documentation.